THE KREMLIN OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD

    The Kremlin of Nizhny Novgorod (built in the years 1500-1511) was an important military fortification of its time The total perimeter of the walls is 2045 m, its surface is 22,7 ha (compare: the Moscow Kremlin 2250 m and 27,5 respectively). The Kremlin was built with the participation of Russian and Italian craftsmen. The Kremlin was restored in the middle of the XX-th century under the supervision of Svaytoslav Agafonov. At present the towers and the walls of the Kremlin are under the jurisdiction of History and Architecture Museum. The Kremlin of Nizhny Novgorod is the administrative center of the Volga region, of Nizhegorodskaya oblast' and of Nizhny Novgorod itself.
    Dmitrievskaya tower was the main entrance to the Kremlin and besides was initially the upland center of defence. The tower got its name from Dmitry Solunsky church. As a reserve of History and Architecture Museum it hosts various exhibitions. In 1993 the image of the founder of Nizhny Novgorod - the Great Prince Yury Vsevolodovich - was installed in the icon niche on the outer part of the tower above the entrance.
    Kladovaya (Storage) tower was used as armoury, the place where weapons were stored (that's where the name comes from). Now there is a bar in the tower which has the same name "Kladovaya tower". This is the starting point of an excursion around the Kremlin walls (as far as Chasovaya tower).
    Nikolskaya tower got its name from Verhneposadskaya Nikolskaya church, which stood in Bolshaya Pokrovskaya Street. The tower belonged to military department and was used as a warehouse.
    Koromyslova (Yoke) tower. There is a poetic legend about how the tower got its name. This legend is about a girl who killed a lot of enemies using a yoke. She was buried with all honours under the basement of the tower. The other version of how the tower got its name says that the tower together with the adjacent walls resembles a woman with a yoke.
    Tainitskaya (Secret) tower was called so because it had a secret underground passage which led to the Pochaina River. In 1941-1942 antiaircraft guns were mantled on the upper platform of the tower.
    Severnaya (North) tower is called so because it is situated to the north of Tainitskaya tower. This tower as well as Chasovaya tower was planned to be reconstructed and used as the residence for VIPs visiting our city (this plan was not realized). During the years of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) there was a weapon emplacement of anti-aircraft defence on the upper platform of the tower.
    Chasovaya (Clock) tower was called so because it housed the main tower clock. During the years of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) there was a weapon emplacement of anti-aircraft defence on the upper platform of the tower. Since 1980 it has been used as a base to provide support for Changing the Guards ceremony at the Eternal Fire on the territory of the Kremlin.
    Ivanovskaya tower was the main entrance and the center of the lowland part of the Kremlin. It was called in honour of the near standing Saint John the Baptist Church. This tower became famous after the emergency volunteer corps of Nizhny Novgorod headed by Minin and Pozharsky started their march to set it free from the Polish invaders in 1612. In memory of this historical event a permanent exposition was opened in the tower in 2004.
    Belaya (White) tower is called so as it was made of white stone.
    Zachatievskaya tower was destroyed because of landslides. It got its name after the near standing Zachatievsky convent. There is a project of its reconstruction.
    Borisoglebskaya tower is the copy of the ancient tower dismantled in the years 1785-1795. It got its name after Boris and Gleb Church.
    Georgievskaya tower was called after St. George. During the repair works in the XVII century the entrance gates were blocked up with brick. During the Soviet years the tower was used as a warehouse.
    Porokhovaya (Gunpowder) tower was called so as it stored gunpowder in its cellars. It is not used nowadays.
    A memorial plaque to commemorate the military units formed on the Nizhegorodskaya land during the years of the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) is mantled on the outer side of the wall connecting it to Dmitrievskaya tower.
    Michael Archangel Cathedral is the most ancient construction on the territory of the Kremlin that has been preserved till nowadays. It's a remarkable specimen of old Russian architecture. It was built in the years 1628-1631 on the place where in 1221 (the year when Nizhny Novgorod was founded) a wooden church in the name of Michael Archangel was founded. There is the Tomb of Kozma Minin - the organized and the leader of Russian people emergency volunteer corps of 1611-1612. Now the Cathedral is a functioning Russian Orthodox church.
    Administrative Building. Cadet Corps. In 1785 two-stored buildings were constructed in accordance with the project by Ananjin (Rastrelly's disciple). Later they were reconstructed and in 1840 the building got its present look. Here in 1840 in the family of a teacher from Cadet Corp was born a famous Russian pilot P.N. Nesterov. At present the building houses the Legislative Assembly of Nizhegorodskaya oblast', administrative buildings and the State Academic Philharmonic Society named after M.L. Rostropovich.
    The vice-governor's houses is a splendid specimen of a gala administrative building of the end of the XVIII-th century. It is one of the main constructions forming the administrative complex of the Kremlin. It was built in the years 1786-1788. The house underwent repair works several times; as a result it was partially modified. At present it houses the Arbitrage Court of Nizhegorodskaya oblast'. The building of the Kremlin Police Unite was constructed several times. It housed the City Telephone Exchange. Since 1994 the Federal Treasure Administration in Nizhegorodskaya oblast'. An extension was added to the building.
    The building of the Arsenal was built in the years 1838-1843. During its entire existence it was used as a storage of ammunition. Since 2003 it holds the State Center of Modern Art.
    The manage was built in 1841. training of horses and military parades were held here. In the years 1901,1902,1903 and 1904 Maxim Gorky organized here famous New Year's celebrations for poor children. After the Revolution the building was used as a tram depot, later it stored garages and warehouses. A project of its reconstruction has been developed.
    The garnison barracks were built in the years of their existence they housed military units.
    The seat of the regional committee of the C.P.S.U. (The Communist Party of the years 1974-1976. It is a specimen of rationalism in Soviet architecture of the 1960-70-s. It imitates the Kremlin Palace of Conventions in Moscow. A present it's the home for the representative office of the president of the Russian Federation in the Volga area and the Administration of Nizhegorodskaya oblast'.
    The House of Soviets became one of the first large public buildings constructed under the Soviet regime in our city in the years 1929-1931. When preparing the building site a decision was made to demolish the Saviour Transfiguration Cathedral as well as the guardhouse at the military governor's house. This building is a typical specimen of constructivism in architecture: it consist of two intersecting four-storeyed buildings a cylindrical "cockpit", due to which the building resembles an airplane. Since the time when it was built it has been the seat of the municipal authorities.
    The palace of the military governor was built in 1841. After the revolution it housed the headquarters of the Kommunist party and the Komsomol. Since 1991 the palace is occupied by the Nizhegorodsky State arts Museum which has a richest collection of painting, graphic arts and sculpture.
    The obelisk in honour of Kozma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky is the oldest monument in Nizhny Novgorod which was built to commemorate the organizers of the Russian people emergency volunteer corps of 1612. The monument was erected in 1828. The architect is A.I. Melnikov, the sculptor is A.P. Martos (the author of the monument to Minin and Pozharsky on Red Square). The copy of the monument was established in Nizhny Novgorod in 2004 in Narodnogo Edinstva square.
    The memorial complex dedicated to Gorkovites who heroically perished during the Great Patriotic War (1941-1945) was opened in 1965. The complex consists of granite walls with inscriptions, a tall stele with a bas-relief and names of perished Nizhny Novgorod citizens on it, and also a granite slab with the Eternal Fire. On the 9-th of May, 1970 a T-34 tank was added to the complex.
    The memorial "Gorkovites supporting the Army" was opened in the 1975 as a constantly working exhibition of ammunition produced in Gorky during the World War II: the famous tank T-34 built in Sormovo, armoured cars, guns, self-propelled guns, mortars, the legendary "Katusha" and Red Star planes. An obelisk with a figure of George the Victory Bearer, horse-mounted and striking the Serpent, as a symbol of the victories of Russian army was established in 1985.
    The Noble Deference Cross near the House of Soviets was inaugurated on the Day of May, 1994, on the Day of Slavonic Character and culture. It is the day of the memory of the first Slavonic teachers, Saint Apostles Cirill and Mephodiy.
    The monument to the founder of Nizhny Novgorod, Prince Georgiy Vsevolodovich, and his spiritual mentor Saint Simon, the first bishop of Vladimir and Suzdal (sculptor V. Purikhov) was opened on February, 26, 2008 within the celebration of the 500-th anniversary of Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin.
    At present a big project of a new House of Government of Nizhny Novgorod region has been launched. In is designed as a complex including old, reconstructed buildings on the territory of the Kremlin and the new edifice.

    Towers: 1. Dmitrievskaya. 2. Kladovaya (Storage). 3. Nikolskaya. 4. Koromyslova (Yoke). 5. Tainitskaya (Secret). 6. Severnaya (North). 7. Chasovaya (Clock). 8. Ivanovskaya. 9. Belaya (White). 10. Zachatievskaya. 11. Borisoglebskaya. 12. Georgievskaya. 13. Porokhovaya (Gunpowder). 14. Archangel Cathedral. 15. A work-place's building. (Cadet Corps). 16. The vice-governor's houses. 17. The building of the Kremlin Police Unite. 18. The garnison baracks. 19. The obelisk in honour of Kozma Minin and Dmitry Pozharsky. 20. The palace of the military governor. 21. The building of the Arsenal. 22. The manege. 23. The House of Soviets. 24. The memorial complex. 25. The memorial "Gorkovites supporting the Army". 26. The seat of the regional committee of the C.P.S.U. 27. House of Goverment of Nizhny Novgorod region under construction. 28. The Noble Deference Cross. 29. The monument to the founder of Nizhny Novgorod, Prince Georgiy Vsevolodovich, and his spiritual mentor Saint Simon.

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